An overview of the history of mental illness and mental retardation in the medical research of moder

Between the 11th and 15th centuries, supernatural theories of mental disorders again dominated Europe, fueled by natural disasters like plagues and famines that lay people interpreted as brought about by the devil. In Morocco the traditional Berber people were animists and the concept of sorcery was integral to the understanding of mental disorder; it was mixed with the Islamic concepts of djin and often treated by religious scholars combining the roles of holy mansageseer and sorcerer.

Dorothea Dix worked to change the negative perceptions of people with mental illness and helped create institutions where they could receive compassionate care. In Marchthe Justice Department joined a lawsuit brought upon the New England state by private plaintiffs a month earlier, which was in response to DOJ findings from April that determined the mental health care system there was not up to par.

Mental Disorders

Kraepelin believed that dementia praecox was primarily a disease of the brain, and particularly a form of dementia.

Hippocrates, and later the Roman physician Galen, introduced the concept of the four essential fluids of the human body—blood, phlegm, bile, and black bile—the combinations of which produced the unique personalities of individuals Butcher Amulets were also used, supplemented by prayers and charms, to soothe troubled minds, prevent mystical infection, and protect against witches and evil spirits MacDonald To increase the momentum of the asylum-movement, school teacher Dorothea Dix pictured began her advocacy work in Hebrews saw madness as punishment from God, so treatment consisted of confessing sins and repenting.

Mental illness was nonetheless viewed somatogenically, so treatments were similar to those for physical illnesses: As confinement laws focused on protecting the public from the mentally ill, governments became responsible for housing and feeding undesirables in exchange for their personal liberty.

So some conditions, even though they may be judged negatively, will not count as disorders because they are neither are nor are caused by dysfunctions. Sadler, ; Fulford, Those who argue that psychiatric classification is necessarily value-laden rarely rest their argument on the claim that all of science is value-laden, or even more controversially, that all of science is subjective.

The Indispensability of phenomenology. Clinical psychology and social work developed as professions alongside psychiatry.

History of mental disorders

At the other end of the spectrum are theories that psychiatric classification depends solely on the whim or values of those doing the classification, that there is nothing objective about it at all, and that there are no facts about what is normal.

Entries and Exits, New York: Often one finds claims in popular discourse to the effect that alcoholics are not responsible for their drinking because the drinking is a symptom of a disease, or because it is the disease that causes them to drink.

There has been considerable discussion of how to draw a distinction between the two.

Our History

Most inmates were institutionalized against their will, lived in filth and chained to walls, and were commonly exhibited to the public for a fee.

Early man widely believed that mental illness was the result of supernatural phenomena such as spiritual or demonic possession, sorcery, the evil eye, or an angry deity and so responded with equally mystical, and sometimes brutal, treatments. In order to bring the body back into equilibrium, patients were given emetics, laxatives, and were bled using leeches or cupping MacDonald For example, recent debates over the use of and insurance coverage for medication for erectile dysfunction have vividly illustrated the question for physical disorders; if a man has a condition that means that he is only able to have sex twice a week without taking medication, does that mean he has a disability.

The long-awaited revision stirred quite a bit of controversy, and a number of organizations, including the National Institute of Mental Health, vowed to begin research to develop their own diagnostic system for mental illnesses. This was because it was not a derogatory term at that time. Somatic treatments included applying bodily fluids while reciting magical spells.

Despite not being formally ordered to take part, psychiatrists and psychiatric institutions were at the center of justifying, planning and carrying out the atrocities at every stage, and "constituted the connection" to the later annihilation of Jews and other "undesirables" such as homosexuals in the Holocaust.

Mental Illness

Describe specific beliefs or events in history that exemplify each of these etiological theories e. There were some bourgeois ex-patient reformers who opposed the often brutual regimes, blaming both the madhouse owners and the medics, who in turn resisted the reforms.

For example, even if evolutionary theory could show that homosexuality stems from an internal dysfunction, we might not classify homosexuality as a disorder because we might decide that it is not harmful in our society.

Validity refers to the truthfulness of some issue. The National Institute of Mental Health NIMH withdrew research support and insurance providers demonstrated a lack of confidence in the diagnostic scheme. Competition from nonmedical mental health treatment providers also made the conditions for psychiatrists rather tenuous.

Mental Health America, in conjunction with the Congressional Black Caucus and the National Institute of Mental Health, organized the first comprehensive conference on The State of Mental Health and Mental Illness in Black America.

To Insel, mental illnesses are no different from heart disease, diabetes or any other chronic illness. All chronic diseases have behavioral components as well as biological components, he says. "The only difference here is that the organ of interest is the brain instead of the heart or pancreas.

Mental illnesses were well known in ancient Mesopotamia, where diseases and mental disorders were believed to be caused by specific deities. Because hands symbolized control over a person, mental illnesses were known as "hands" of certain deities.

A History of Mental Institutions in the United States

One psychological illness was known as Qāt Ištar, meaning "Hand of Ishtar". The History of Mental Health Services in Modern England: Practitioner Memories and the Direction of Future Research.

A Brief History of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Towards a history of modern mental health services. Risk Perception and Determination Following the Mental Health Act ’, Medical Law Review, 19, 4 ().

Of the roughly 26, inmates in Maryland penitentiaries, about 4, or 16 percent, have been diagnosed with a mental illness, said Dr.

James Holwager, director of Mental Health Services for the Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services. Module 2: A Brief History of Mental Illness and the U.S. Mental Health Care System The history of mental illness in the United States is a good representation of the ways in which trends in psychiatry and cultural understanding of mental illness influence national policy and attitudes towards mental health.

An overview of the history of mental illness and mental retardation in the medical research of moder
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Taking a Mental Health History