From the late nineteenth century onwards, the philosophical search for universal values has gradually weakened by the rise of an attempt to turn politics into a scientific discipline. Singling out institutions and neglecting individuals cannot be pronounced as proper methods of studying politics.
Thus, Empirical Approach is used in the study of political science to arrive at different conclusions through experiments.
Facts and incidents are not always correctly recorded. Comparison may be macro or micro. For a Marxist, the task of textual interpretation is to uncover this obscured reality and expose the illusion of that epoch.
The approaches employed by political scientists for the study of politics have been classified by Wasby in the following way: While comparing the different political systems the researchers or students making comparison must be well versed with the several aspects of the political system.
Criticisms of the Traditional Approach: In his comparison study he confronted the reasons as to why the specific democratic system of America was viable there, but not in his native Europe. In the present day, there is greater acceptance of the idea of changing moral judgementsinstead of one set of rules, for a number of philosophers and writers.
The view-point of the traditionalists is, limited within the institutions. Society and the state are artificial and not natural and that not the Reason but the Will of man is required to produce the State.
Plato pointed out how no one person could survive by them self or without the help of a controlled civil society. Somewhat more broadly it denotes general conceptions of ends and means, purposes and methods.
In international society power normally assumes military character, but not always. Both Skinner and Pocock posit a linguistic context as the appropriate unit of analysis that elicit the types of meaning that the historian makes intelligible.
Not all these associations and groups are directly related to the political authority, but they are not outside the jurisdiction of state and an interaction between groups or associations and state is never a rare occasion. Outside economic influence, politics has no independent authority.
He focuses attention upon the interest group attitude to politics. The traditional approaches have dismally failed to recognise the role of the individuals who play very important roles in moulding and remoulding the shape and nature of politics.
In an angrier second phase, feminist scholars set out to expose and criticize the misogyny lurking in the works of Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Bentham, Mill and Marx among others.
The efforts to pragmatise politics started at the beginning of the twentieth century. The Panchayat system and Land Reform of West Bengal have been highly praised by several Indian states and they have expressed their desire to take lessons. Politics of every society is conditioned and determined by the group activity.
Hobbes wanted to save England from disorder and anarchy which engulfed the British Society of his time. R after the death of Lenin may be cited as an example. His work Leviathan has been called one of the most significant pieces of writing in modern political ideology, rivaling the works of many famous minds including Plato, Aristotle, Locke, and many others.
After deciding the principles or general objectives the state proceeds to implement them. The idea of emancipation is associated with economic terms. The institutional approach has been vehemently criticised. The institutionalists have been charged of being biased, because they have neglected the individuals who form the institutions.
In latter periods we come across a number of philosophers who emphasised the normative approach of politics and the great contractualist Rousseau is a prominent figure. Originally the comparative approach to study politics was confined to the developed and matured political systems. This is the main objection against the historical approach to the study of politics.
It is considered difficult, even undesirable, to separate practical from philosophical considerations. Individuals in any society pursue conflicting desires and this is the path-finder of politics.
Thus, for Marx, the point and purpose of any ideology is to lend legitimacy to the rule of the dominant class or social order; they serve as smoke screens, hiding the underlying reality from the public and presenting a superficial false picture of a just society.
Essays, Term Papers, Book Reports, Research Papers on Philosophy. Free Papers and Essays on Political Philosophy. We provide free model essays on Philosophy, Political Philosophy reports, and term paper samples related to Political Philosophy. Political Science is studied in a systematic and scientific way.
In order to study it in a systematic and scientific manner, some approaches are usually followed. Without these approaches, Political Science cannot be studied properly.
These approaches make the study of Political Science interesting and easier. The traditional approaches to Political Science was widely prevalent till the outbreak of the Second World War.
These approaches were mainly related to the traditional view of politics which emphasized the study of the state and government. Normative approach to the study of politics owes its origin to the political philosophy of Greek philosopher Plato. The thought of a good society or an ideal state and the entire structure of such a state are built upon the concepts like ‘should’, ‘ought’, ‘preference’ etc.
Political philosophy is a subfield of philosophy that focuses heavily on the political, legal, and moral implications of different schools of thought within society.5/5(2). Political thought is thought about the State, its structure, nature and purpose - Approaches to the Study of Political Philosophy & Problems and Challenges of Interpretation Essay introduction.
It is concerned with the moral elements of human behaviour in a society.Approaches to the study of political philosophy essay